♦ OFFERING A PROTECTIVE HAND
Find mention about :
- Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
- Gender Champions
- Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill 2018
- Portal ‘Khoya Paya’
♦ MAKING QUALITY MEDICINES AVAILABLE TO THE COMMON MAN
Find mention about :
- Janaushadhi scheme
- Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana(PMBJP)
♦ MULTI-PRONGED APPROACH TO BRIDGE THE URBAN-RURAL DIVIDE
Find mention about :
- National Agricultural Policy
- National Food Security Mission
- Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
- Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
- National Agricultural Market
- Soil Health Management
- Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)
- Paramparagat Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
- Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
- Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan
- Mission Antyodaya
- Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme
GENERAL STUDIES – II
- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
OFFERING A PROTECTIVE HAND
- For many years, women and children have been treated unequally by society.
- Despite making up two third of our population, their important perspectives have often been ignored, and they have been side lined in the development paradigm.
- No country or culture can make real progress unless it upholds the rights of women and children and gives them equal space in society.
- The government takes a holistic view to ensure the welfare and safety of women and children. Both these aspects – empowerment and protection.
- Both these aspects are interlinked and one cannot achieve without the other.
Changing mind sets
- To build safe and positive environment, one must start at the earliest stage and attack the root of the problem -mind-sets.
- For this the government has extended the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao programme in all districts of the country, close monitoring of abortions and education of girls etc.
- In a similar vein, “Gender Champions” is being implemented through educational institutions to help students build an understanding of gender and prevent them from acting in ways detrimental to women and children.
Encouraging reporting and supporting survivors
- Since many women and children may be hesitant to directly approach the police, a nationwide network of 182 One Stop Centres (OSC) under the Nirbhaya Fund has been set up.
- OSC’s offer a single window to services for women facing violence such as police, medical, legal, and psychological assistance along with a secure place to stay for a few days.
- Women can report violence to the 181 women helpline which is a universal toll free number providing emergency and non-emergency response to women in distress.
- A significant step has also been 33 percent reservation for women in police force.
- To make reporting of sexual abuse instances faced by the children, an online portal “POSCO ebox” initiative has been set up where a child or anyone on behalf can file a complaint with minimal details.
Building a strong legal framework
- The Ministry has recently drafted the Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill 2018. This bill fills existing gaps and covers all aspects of trafficking.
- The legal framework for protection of children from societal practices such as child marriage is also being strengthened and stringently implemented.
- An easy to use online portal ‘SHE -box’ has been launched for online complaints of sexual harassment at workplace for all women in the country, irrespective of their work status or organisation.
- Recognising the need to address the social evil of dowry, the implementation of the Dowry Prohibition Act is being pursued vigorously.
Funding Innovative projects
- Nirbhaya fund : Often misrepresented as being underutilized.
- A feature of Panic button will soon be available on all mobile phones in the country to provide emergency response to women in distress.
Leveraging IT for protection
- A Central Reporting mechanism is being created to work as a hotline for anyone to report cybercrime and easier processes are being put in place to remove Child pornography, Rape and Gang rape.
- Using IT as a tool to improve protection of children, the Ministry has set up an online citizen based portal ‘Khoya Paya’.
- On this, information on missing children is posted to help identify them and reunite children with their families.
Rehabilitating Survivors of Violence
- Rehabilitation of survivors of sexual assault is also an essential aspect of a comprehensive government intervention.
- For this Central Victim Compensation Scheme under the Nirbhaya fund provides additional assistance to state governments to compensate women who have faced violence.
- Ministry of Women and Child Development requested Ministry of social justice and empowerment to include acid attack induced damage or disfigurement within the list of specified disabilities.
- The recently enacted Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016, has included acid attack as a kind of disability, which allows acid attack victims to now, avail disability benefits.
- In an innovative move, the Ministry has also set up Child Help Desks in 60 major railway stations around the country known to be common source and destination centres for child trafficking.
Covering the last mile
- To ensure the government’s protective mechanisms also reach rural women, the Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme has been recently launched.
- Among other government benefits, the students will also educate women about government support for survivors of violence and help them connect with such institutions.
- Only if women in India, feels safe and secure will they be able to completely participate in public life and contribute to economic growth.
- The government seeks to ensure that every women and child in India should be able to step out of their homes without fear and strives to ensure that this is achieved.
- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
MAKING QUALITY MEDICINES AVAILABLE TO THE COMMON MAN
- It is an irony that even after independence, only around 40 percent of the population are able to afford branded medicines.
- However the bright side of the picture is, India is one of the leading countries to export world class generic medicines to around 200 countries.
- One of every 6 medicines consumed in the world, is from India.
- On the one hand 6 out of 10 persons do not have access to medicines, whereas India is within the first four countries in the world, producing quality generic medicines exporting to other countries.
- Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana is a scheme designed to bridge the above dichotomy.
- It is dedicated to provide quality medicines at an affordable price to every citizen of the country, irrespective of caste, creed and economy.
About Janaushadhi scheme
- Janaushadhi scheme was launched by Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India.
- The Scheme is being implemented through the Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India, Gurgaon, Haryana which is working under administrative control of Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India.
- In September 2015, the Jan Aushadhi scheme was revamped as ‘Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadhi Yojana.
- To give impetus to the scheme and for greater outreach, the scheme was again renamed as ‘Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana’(PMBJP).
- Ensure access to quality medicines for all sections of the population especially for all sections of the poor and the deprived ones.
- Extend coverage of quality generic medicines so as to reduce ad thereby redefine the unit cost of treatment per person.
- Create awareness about generic medicines through education and publicity.
- Be a public programme involving Government, PSU’s, Private sector, NGO, Societies, and other institutions.
- Create demand for generic medicines by improving access to better healthcare through low treatment cost and easy availability wherever needed in all therapeutic categories.
- Generate employment by engaging individual entrepreneurs in opening of Jan Aushadhi Kendras.
Benefits to the Entrepreneurs
- Financial support of Rs 2.5 lakh shall be extended where space is provided free of cost by the State government to operating agency.
- Financial support of Rs 2.5 lakh shall be extended to Government Agencies where space will be provided free of cost in any government building.
- SC/ST and differently abled persons shall be benefited with free medicines worth of Rs 50,000.
- Central Warehouse adequately stocked with products.
- Appointed 8 C&F agents in different States and many more are in the pipeline for better supply chain management.
- Implemented End to End supply system for ensuring better supply.
- Many State government entered MOU for implementing PMBJP in their States.
- Number of Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Janaushadhi Kendras functioning has reached more than 35000.
- Bureau of Pharma PSU’s of India (BPPI) is opening 4-5 kendras per day across the country.
- PMBJP Kendra now present in 33 states/UT’s of the country.
- Out of 718 districts in the country, 584 districts have been covered by opening of PMBJP Kendras.
- PMBJP has drastically brought down the prices of quality medicines and made medicines available within the reach of large section of population especially the poor.
- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
MULTI-PRONGED APPROACH TO BRIDGE THE URBAN-RURAL DIVIDE
- Rural development is vital for the development of Indian economy. Rural population predominantly relies on agriculture for livelihood.
- Rural development also envisages growth of non-farm sector and development of infrastructural facilities in rural areas.
National Agricultural Policy
- The first ever National Agricultural Policy announced in 2000 sought to utilize the vast untapped growth potential of Indian agriculture, strengthen rural infrastructure to support faster agricultural development, promote value addition, accelerate growth of agro-business to create employment in rural areas, secure standard of living etc.
- The policy gives high priority to rural electrification, development of market infrastructure, and setting up of agro processing units to reduce wastage of agriculture and horticulture etc.
A brief review of agricultural and rural development schemes aimed at invigorating rural India :
National Food Security Mission
- National Food Security Mission was launched by the government of India during 2007-2008 and implemented in 482 districts of 19 states.
- It aims at increasing production and productivity of wheat, rice, and pulses on a sustainable basis so as to ensure food security in the country.
- Aims to bridge the gap in respect of these crops through dissemination of improved technologies and farm management practices.
- It helps to widen the food basket of the country.
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
- Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana is one of the flagship programmes of Government of India in agriculture and allied sectors.
- Ultimate aim is to significantly increase the productivity and eventually maximize the returns of farmers.
- Aims at incentivizing the states to increase public investment in agriculture and allied sectors, preparation of agricultural plans for districts and states based on agro-climate conditions, availability of technology and natural resources etc.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana
- Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana was launched in 2016 with an objective to provide a comprehensive insurance cover against failure of crops and help in stabilizing the income of the farmer.
- Encourages farmers to adopt innovative agricultural practices and ensure credit flow to the agricultural sector.
- It contributes to food security, crop diversification, and enhancing the growth and competitiveness of agricultural sector.
National Agricultural Market
- National Agricultural Market is a pan -India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
- Provides a single window service for all APMC related information and services.
- Agricultural marketing is administered by the States as per their agri-marketing regulations, under which the state is divided into several market areas, each of which is administered by a separate Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee.
Soil Health Management
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) is implemented with the objective to make agriculture more productive, sustainable, and climate resilient; to conserve natural resources, to adopt comprehensive soil health management practices etc.
- Soil Health Management (SHM)is one of the most important interventions under NMSA.
- SHM is aimed at promoting Integrated Nutrient Management through judicious use of chemical fertilizers including secondary and micro nutrients in conjunction with organic manures and bio-fertilizers for improving soil health and its productivity.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)
- The major objective of PMKSY is to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level, expand cultivable area under assured irrigation, improve on farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water, enhance adoption of precision irrigation, etc
Paramparagat Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
- The government has launched Paramparagat Krishi Sinchayee Yojana in order to address the critical importance of soil and water for improving agricultural production.
- The government supports and improves the organic farming practices prevalent in India.
Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana launched in 2014 is a National Mission for Financial Inclusion to ensure access to financial services, namely banking/ savings & Deposit accounts, Remittance etc in an affordable manner.
- Accounts can be opened in any bank branch or business correspondent outlet.
- Accounts opened under PMJDY are being opened with Zero balance.
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
- It was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India in 2011.
- Aided in part through investment support by the World Bank, the mission aims at creating efficient and effective institutional platforms for the rural poor, enabling them to increase house hold income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services.
Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan
- The Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan strengthens the Panchayat raj system across the country and addresses critical gaps that constrain its success.
- It seeks to enhance capacities and effectiveness of Panchayats and the Gram Sabhas, enable democratic decision making and accountability in Panchayats and promote peoples participation, strengthen institutional structure for knowledge and capacity building of Panchayats etc.
- Mission Antyodaya is a convergence framework for measurable effective outcomes on parameters that transform lives and livelihoods. Real difference comes through convergence as it alone simultaneously addresses multi dimensions of poverty.
- The mission of the scheme is a State led partnership for rapid rural transformation to bring households out of poverty through diversification and development of multiple livelihoods.
- The vision of the scheme is “Poverty free India by 2022” by all round development in human development, social development, ecological development, economic development.
Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme
- MGNREGS is a social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work’ .
- It was initiated with the objective of ‘enhancing livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year.
- MGNREGA is implemented mainly by Gram Panchayats on labour intensive tasks like creating infrastructure for water harvesting, drought relief, and flood control.
- Rural development implies both the economic betterment of people as well as greater social transformation.
- In order to provide the rural people with better prospects for economic development, vibrant agricultural sector, increased participation of people in rural development programmes and greater access to markets are needed.