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Darpan News Analysis , 29 Nov 2018

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Items at a glance

GENERAL STUDIES II

  • Home Is Deadliest Place For Women: Says UN.

GENERAL STUDIES III

  • Soil Health Card Scheme.
  • Neem Coated Urea.
  • Oil Price Fluctuations And Economy.
  • Konkan Exercise

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

  • E Nam Portal.
  • Azov Sea.

 

GENERAL STUDIES II

 Topic

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 HOME IS DEADLIEST PLACE FOR WOMEN: SAYS UN

News

  • According recent study conducted by the United Nations reveals that home is one the deadliest places where women is subjected various sorts of exploitation.

Major findings of the study

  • Home is the most dangerous place for a woman, according to a United Nations study that found the number killed by a partner or relative is rising globally.
  • About 50,000 women were killed worldwide last year by a current or former partner or a family member equating to 137 per day or six per hour found the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
  • While the vast majority of homicide victims are men, women continue to pay the highest price as a result of gender inequality, discrimination and negative stereotypes.
  • Despite recent high-profile campaigns such as #MeToo, in which women publicly called out sexual harassment, they are still far more likely than men to be murdered by their partner or family.
  • The UNODC report called for more action to combat gender-based violence including greater coordination between police, doctors and social services.

QUICK RECAP

Indian scenario and domestic violence

  • According to the report from the National Family Health Survey (NHFS) 27% of women aged 15 to 49 years have experienced physical violence since the age of 15 years.
  • Almost one-third of all married women in India have experienced spousal violence and wife-beating is accepted by many women.

Women’s facing domestic violence (reasons cited) 

  • Patriarchal attitudes:
    • Patriarchal attitudes’ are deeply entrenched in the minds of people, which are reflected in “discriminatory attitudes towards girl and women.
  • Lack of proper attention:
    • Studies conducted by various institutions pointed that Indian girls receive less education, have poorer nutrition and get less medical attention than boys.
  • Lack of awareness:
    • Majority of women suffering from domestic violence instances resides in the rural areas of the country making them unaware about various legal provisions available for their protection.
  • Behavioural change:
    • Despite having improvement in the levels of education, certain sections of the population still believes women are far behind men in many aspects making them more vulnerable for exploitations.

Recent news

 

GENERAL STUDIES III

 Topic

  • Agriculture and related aspects.

 SOIL HEALTH CARD SCHEME

News

  • Union Ministry of Agriculture and farmers welfare has recently said, in order to reduce the cost of production, the government has launched innovative initiative such as Soil health card scheme, neem coated urea etc.

Soil Health Card Scheme

  • Soil health card is a Government of India’ scheme promoted by the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare.
  • It is being implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments.
  • Soil Health Card Scheme is a very beneficial scheme for farmers.
  • There are many farmers in India. And they do not know which types of crops they should grow to get maximum yield.
  • Soil Health Card:
    • A Soil Health Card is used to assess the current status of soil health and, when used over time, to determine changes in soil health that are affected by land management.
    • A Soil Health Card displays soil health indicators and associated descriptive terms.
    • The indicators are typically based on farmers’ practical experience and knowledge of local natural resources. The card lists soil health indicators that can be assessed without the aid of technical or laboratory equipment.
    • SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients); S (Secondary- nutrient); Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients); and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters).
    • Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.
  • Key features of Soil Health Card:
    • The government is planning to cover as many as all farmers under the scheme.
    • The scheme will cover all the parts of the country.
    • In the form of soil card, the farmers will get a report. and this report will contain all the details about the soil of their particular farm.
    • A farm will get the soil card once in every 3 years.
  • Important benefits of Soil Health Card Scheme:
    • The scheme will monitor the soil of the farmers well and will give them a formatted report. So, they can decide well which crops they should cultivate and which ones they should skip.
    • The authorities will monitor the soil on a regular basis. One in every 3 years, they will provide a report to farmers.
    • The work of the government does not stop at listing down measures required to improve the quality of the soil.
    • Farmers will get a proper soil health record, also they can study the soil management practices. Accordingly, they can plan the future of their crops and land.
    • Generally, in government schemes, the person carrying out the study for a particular farmer gets changed. But in the Soil Health Card Scheme, the government is paying attention that the same person carries out soil analysis for a farmer. This will further enhance the effectiveness of the scheme.
    • The soil card will give the farmers a proper idea of which nutrients their soil is lacking. And hence, which crops they should invest in. they will also tell which fertilizers they need. So, ultimately, the crop yield will see a rise.
    • The main aim behind the scheme was to find out the type of particular soil. And then provide ways in which we can improve it.

Recent news

 

 Topic

  • Agriculture and related aspects.

 NEEM COATED UREA

News

  • Union Ministry of Agriculture and Famers welfare recently emphasised on the importance of neem coated urea in reducing the cost of production.

Neem Coated Urea

  • Neem coated urea is the urea which is coated with neem seed oil.
  • The government is providing subsidy on urea which is used for the agricultural purposes. But the company which produces urea sell the urea to chemical company on the name of agriculture uses for get more subsidy.
  • It has been scientifically established that Neem oil serve an effective inhibitor of coated on urea.
  • Conventional Urea Vs Neem coated urea:
    • Ground water contamination:
      • When farmers use conventional urea, about half the applied nitrogen is not assimilated by the plant and leaches into the soil, causing extensive groundwater contamination.
      • On the other hand Spraying urea with neem oil slows the release of nitrogen, by about 10 to 15 per cent, concomitantly reducing consumption of the fertiliser.
    • Agriculture yield:
      • According to recent research, the “sustained release” nature of neem-coated urea has seen rice yields jump 9.6 per cent and wheat by 6.9 per cent.
    • Reduces cost of production:
      • Neem coated urea reduces the urea requirement thus saves money when compared conventional urea fertilizers.
    • Reduces diverting of urea by manufactures:
      • Neem coated urea reduces of instances of diverting subsidised urea provided to manufactures for other industrial purposes.
    • Important benefits of Neem coated urea:
      • Improvement in soil health.
      • Reduction in costs with respect to plant protection chemicals.
      • Reduction in pest and disease attack.
      • An increase in yield of paddy, sugarcane, maize, soybean and tur/red gram to an extent of 5.79%, 17.5%, 7.14%, 7.4% and 16.88% respectively.
      • Diversion of highly subsidized urea towards non-agricultural purposes negligible among farmers after the introduction of the mandatory policy of production and distribution of only Neem coated urea.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

 OIL PRICE FLUCTUATIONS AND ECONOMY

News

  • Oil price fluctuations and its impacts.

Crude Oil price and its volatility

  • Factors influence crude oil price:
    • Global demand for oil.
    • Decision by major oil producing nations to raise/cut supplies.
    • Anticipated production cuts as well as U.S. sanctions against Iran.
    • Also, automobile demand has risen globally, and as internal combustion engines still rule the roost, demand for oil is not expected to plummet yet.
    • Global political environment etc.
  • Downward trend of crude oil pricing (reasons cited):
    • The recent fall has been attributed to two main factors:
      • Higher supply and volatility due to uncertainty about the global economy.
      • Fears of the consequences of a full-fledged trade war between the U.S. and China have rattled speculators.
    • Crude oil price and its impacts of rupee:
      • India imports more than 80% of its crude oil requirements, and it has to pay for these imports in foreign currency, mainly dollars.
      • If international crude prices rise, refiners in the country need to spend more in dollars.
      • If there is volatility and uncertainty about which way prices will sway, refiners tend to buy more oil and stock up.
      • As rupees are exchanged for the U.S. currency in this exercise, it generates a demand for the dollar, thereby weakening the rupee.
    • Fuel price hike and inflation:
      • Prices of goods are determined as much by their supply as by the cost of transportation.
      • Apples from Himachal Pradesh are eaten in Kerala, for instance. Rise in fuel costs are passed on by truck fleet owners down the chain to consumers.
      • Accelerating inflation influences the central bank to raise rates thereby making it costlier to borrow.
      • Higher interest rates keep supply of money in check and hence control inflation.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Internal security, defence and related aspects.

 KONKAN EXERCISE

News

  • Konkan Exercise begins in Goa.

Major highlights

  • KOKAN exercise is a bilateral naval exercise between India and United Kingdom.
  • The Bilateral KONKAN exercise provides a platform for the two Navies (Indian Navy and Royal Navy) to periodically exercise at sea and in harbour, so as to build interoperability and share best practices.
  • The KONKAN series of exercises commenced in 2004, and since then has grown in scale.
  • The thrust of the exercise this year would be on Anti-Air warfare, Anti-Surface Warfare, Anti-Submarine Warfare, Visit Board Search and Seizure (VBSS) and Seamanship Evolutions.
  • Besides exercises at sea, KONKAN-2018 also encompasses professional interactions and sports fixtures.
  • Significance:
    • The exercise is aimed at deriving mutual benefit from each other’s experiences and is indicative of the continuing cooperation between the two countries.
    • The inter-operability achieved over the years as a result of such exercises has proved to be operationally beneficial to both navies.
    • The naval cooperation is a tangible symbol of the commitment of both nations in ensuring a positive climate at sea for enhancing strategic stability and promoting economic prosperity.

Recent news

 

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

E NAM PORTAL

About

  • National Agriculture Market or eNAM is an online trading platform for agricultural commodities in the country.
  • Under the scheme, a web based platform has been deployed across 585 regulated markets to promote online trading, digitalization of entire functioning of markets outline gate entry, lot making, bidding , generation of e-sale agreement and e- payment etc.,
  • The market will help in better price discovery and provide facilities for smooth marketing of their produce.

Recent news

  • E -NAM portal.
  • Source:

AZOV SEA

About

  • The Sea of Azov is a sea in Eastern Europe. To the south it is linked by the narrow Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea and it is sometimes regarded as northern extension of the Black sea.
  • The Sea is bounded in the northwest by Ukraine in the southeast by Russia.
  • Don and Kuban are the major rivers that flow in to it.
  • The Sea of Azov is the shallowest sea in the world.
  • Sea of Azov is largely affected by the inflow of numerous rivers which bring sand, slit, and shells which in turn for numerous bays, limans, and narrow spits.
  • Due to the river flow the sea has low salinity and high amount of biomass that affects the water colour. Abundant plankton results in high fish productivity.
  • Because of the deposits, the sea bottom is relatively smooth and flat with the depth gradually increasing towards the middle.

Recent news

 

 

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