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Darpan News Analysis , 21 Nov 2018

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Items at a glance

GENERAL STUDIES II

  • AP, West Bengal Withdraw General Consent For CBI Investigation.
  • Jammu And Kashmir President’s Rule.
  • Institutions Innovation Council.

GENERAL STUDIES III

  • Industrial 3d Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

  • NASI Scopus Young Scientist Award.

 

GENERAL STUDIES II

 Topic

  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

 A.P, WEST BENGAL WITHDRAW GENERAL CONSENT FOR CBI INVESTIGATION

News

  • Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal has recently withdrew the general consent for CBI investigation.

Major highlights

  • Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal withdrew the “general consent” granted to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) thereby effectively curtailing the agency’s power in the States.
  • The CBI and all agencies under the Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, 1946, will now have to approach the State government for permission for investigation on a case by case basis.

QUICK RECAP

  • What is general consent?
    • Unlike the National Investigation Agency (NIA), which is governed by its own NIA Act and has jurisdiction across the country, the CBI is governed by the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act that makes consent of a state government mandatory for conducting investigation in that state.
    • There are two kinds of consent:
      • Case specific consent:
        • Given that the CBI has jurisdiction only over central government departments and employees, it can investigate a case involving state government employees or a violent crime in a given state only after that state government gives its consent.
      • General Consent:
        • General consent” is normally given to help the CBI seamlessly conduct its investigation into cases of corruption against central government employees in the concerned state.
        • Almost all states have given such consent. Otherwise, the CBI would require consent in every case.
      • What does withdrawal mean?
        • It means the CBI will not be able to register any fresh case involving a central government official or a private person stationed in these two states without getting case-specific consent.
        • Withdrawal of consent simply means that CBI officers will lose all powers of a police officer as soon as they enter the state unless the state government has allowed them.
      • Under what provision the general consent has been withdrawn?
        • In exercise of power conferred by Section 6 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 (Central Act No 25 of 1946), the government withdraws the general consent for CBI.
        • Section 6 of the Act says:
          • Nothing contained in Section 5 (which deals with jurisdiction of CBI) shall be deemed to enable any member of the Delhi Special Police Establishment to exercise powers and jurisdiction in any area in a State, not being a Union Territory or Railway, area, without the consent of the Government of that State.
        • Does that mean that the CBI can no longer probe any case in the two states?
          • The CBI would still have the power to investigate old cases registered when general consent existed.
          • Also, cases registered anywhere else in the country, but involving people stationed in Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, would allow CBI’s jurisdiction to extend to these states.
        • What happens in fresh cases?
          • Withdrawal of consent will only bar the CBI from registering a case within the jurisdiction of Andhra and Bengal.
          • The CBI could still file cases in Delhi and continue to probe people inside the two states.
        • Is it the first time a state government has withdrawn consent?
          • Over the years, several states have done so, including Sikkim, Nagaland, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka has withdrawn general consent for CBI.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

  JAMMU AND KASHMIR PRESIDENT’S RULE

News

  • Governor’s rule, imposed under Section 92 for six months, expires in the State on January 19.

Major highlights

  • Jammu and Kashmir Governor stated that the State was all set for President’s rule in January as there were no plans to dissolve the Assembly yet.
  • Since J&K has a separate Constitution, Governor’s rule is imposed under Section 92 for six months after an approval by the President.
  • Why governors’ rule and not presidents rule in Jammu and Kashmir?
    • In other states, President’s Rule is imposed after breakdown of constitutional machinery in the State under Article 356 of the Constitution.
    • But Jammu and Kashmir has its own separate Constitution that provides for an intermediary statutory layer in the state.
    • As per Article 92 of the Jammu and Kashmir Constitution, Governor’s Rule is imposed in the state for a period of six months.
    • Jammu and Kashmir assembly remains under suspended animation during this period. However, the governor may dissolve the assembly.
    • Suspended animation of the assembly means the elected MLAs remain in office and legislative assembly continues to exist without the power of legislation. The governor assumes the power of legislation during this period.
    • At the expiry of six months of Governor’s Rule and if suspension of assembly has not been revoked, Jammu and Kashmir comes under the President’s Rule as mandated by the Constitution of India as per Article 356.
  • If the Governor decides to dissolve Legislative Assembly during his own rule or when the state is under the President’s Rule, election shall be held within six months.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 INSTITUTIONS INNOVATION COUNCIL

News

  • Ministry of Human Resource and development has launched Institution’s Innovation Council programme.

Institutions Innovation Council Programme

  • Union HRD Ministry through video conferencing launched the ‘Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC) programme under Innovation cell.
  • Ministry of Human Resource Development has established an “Innovation cell” at AICTE with a purpose to systematically foster the culture of Innovation in all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the country.
  • The purpose of formation of network of Institution’s Innovation Councils (IICs) is to encourage, inspire and nurture young students by exposing them to new ideas and processes resulting in innovative activities in their formative years.
  • More than 1000 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have already formed IICs in their campuses and enrolled for the IIC network managed by MHRD’s Innovation cell to promote innovation through multitudinous modes leading to an innovation promotion eco-system in their campuses.
  • It is a significant step in institutionalising innovation and developing a scientific temperament in the country.

Recent news

 

GENERAL STUDIES III

Topic

  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

INDUSTRIAL 3D PRINTING OR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

News

  • India must adapt to additive technologies.

Industrial 3D printing / Additive manufacturing

  • Additive manufacturing uses data computer-aided-design (CAD) software or 3D object scanners to direct hardware to deposit material, layer upon layer, in precise geometric shapes.
  • As its name implies, additive manufacturing adds material to create an object.
  • By contrast, when you create an object by traditional means, it is often necessary to remove material through milling, machining, carving, shaping or other means.
  • Comparing with traditional methods:
    • Traditional means:
      • Traditional manufacturing of mechanical parts involves making a mould and then stamping out parts by thousands every day.
      • The equipment to make these parts and moulds is expensive, thus the cost of the first hundred units is high.
      • Because of limitations of how this technology works, one typically builds many small parts, which are later on assembled on an assembly line using unskilled labour or robots to build an entire system.
      • Traditional manufacturing leads to high inventory costs of multiple parts that need to be produced and stored before being assembled.
      • This makes the design phase complex and costly, rendering it expensive to redesign to correct initial mistakes or innovate to meet changing consumer needs.
    • Additive means:
      • On the other hand In additive manufacturing, the physical object to be built is first designed in software.
      • This design is fed to computerised machines, which build that object layer by layer.
      • The technology is suitable for building the entire systems in one go, with hollow interiors without assembly or interlocked parts.
      • Retooling of machines is not required and each unit can be customised.
  • Major advantages of additive technologies :
    • Eliminates large capital outlays:
      • It eliminates large capital outlays. Machines are cheaper, inventories can be small and space requirements are not large.
      • Thus, jump-starting manufacturing does not face the massive hurdle of large capital requirement and the traditional small and medium enterprises can easily be adapted and retooled towards high technology manufacturing.
    • Scope of Indian software industry:
      • The Indian software industry is well-established, and plans to increase connectivity are well under way as part of ‘Digital India’.
      • This would allow for the creation of manufacturing facilities in small towns and foster industrial development outside of major cities.
    • Manufacturing of reliable and durable products:
      • It is possible to build products that are better suited for use in harsh environmental conditions.
      • Products that required assembly of fewer parts also implies that they may be better able to withstand dust and moisture prevalent in our tropical environment and be more durable.
    • Uniform product quality:
      • Maintaining uniform product quality is far easier because the entire system is built at the same time and assembly is not required.
    • Maintenance of old products:
      • In a country where use-and-throw is an anathema, maintaining old products is far easier because parts can be manufactured as needed and product life-cycles can be expanded.

Disadvantages

  • This technological nirvana carries dangerous implications for developing nations :
    • Less reliance on assembly workers:
      • It decreases reliance on assembly workers and bypasses the global supply chain that has allowed countries like China to become prosperous through export of mass-produced items.
    • Creation of software based platforms:
      • This may well lead to the creation of software-based design platforms in the West that distribute work orders to small manufacturing facilities, whether located in developed or developing countries.
    • Labour intensive manufacturing exports:
      • Adopting additive technologies will further make labour intensive industries less profitable.
    • Difficult and expensive shift:
      • For countries that have already invested in heavy manufacturing, this shift to adaptive manufacturing will be difficult and expensive.

Recent news

 

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

 NASI SCOPUS YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD

About

  • The Scopus Young Scientist Awards, first launched by Elsevier in 2006, is part of an Elsevier’s global initiative to support early career researchers in their quest to advance the frontiers of science across a broad range of disciplines.
  • In 2009, India officially adopted the program within its scientific community through Elsevier’s collaboration with The National Academy of Sciences, India.
  • The program honours outstanding young researchers in India who are building their careers in academic research, helping them gain recognition for their work.
  • This year NASI Scopus Awards has introduced 5 multi-disciplinary categories that are aligned with national missions of Make in India, Digital India, Healthy India and Clean India.

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