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Darpan News Analysis , 10 Nov 2018

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Items at a glance

GENERAL STUDIES II

  • Bar-On Double Jeopardy.
  • Pneumonia In India.

GENERAL STUDIES III

  • Bannerghatta National Park.
  • National Tiger Conservation Authority.

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

  • Queen Heo Memorial.
  • Artificial Intelligence News Anchors.

 

GENERAL STUDIES II

 Topic

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

 BAR ON DOUBLE JEOPARDY

News

  • No bar on double jeopardy in the absence of trial.

Major highlights

  • The bar of double jeopardy does not arise if an accused was discharged of a criminal offence, even before the commencement of trial, on the basis of an invalid sanction for prosecution, the Supreme Court has held.
  • Constitutional provision:
    • Article 20 (2) of the Constitution mandates that a person cannot be prosecuted or punished twice for the same offence.
  • A Bench of Justices R. Banumathi and Indira Banerjee held in an October 30 judgment that if an “accused has not been tried at all and convicted or acquitted, the principles of double jeopardy cannot be invoked at all.”

QUICK RECAP

  • Double jeopardy:
    • Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
    • In some countries, including Canada, Mexico and the United States, the guarantee against being “twice put in jeopardy” is a constitutional right.

 The doctrine of double jeopardy in India

    • A partial protection against double jeopardy is a Fundamental Right guaranteed under Article 20 (2) of the Constitution of India, which states “No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.”
    • This provision enshrines the concept of autrefois convict, that no one convicted of an offence can be tried or punished a second time.

 Reasons for enacting double jeopardy doctrine in India

    • To prevent the government from using its superior resources to wear down and erroneously convict innocent persons.
    • To protect individuals from the financial, emotional, and social consequences of successive prosecutions.
    • To preserve the finality and integrity of criminal proceedings, which would be compromised if the government was allowed to ignore verdicts it did not like.
    • To restrict prosecutorial discretion over the charging process.
    • To eliminate judicial discretion to impose cumulative punishments otherwise not clearly prohibited by law.

 Recent news

 

Topic

  • Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

PNEUMONIA IN INDIA

News

  • The report highlights India’s burden.

Major highlights

  • India continues to have the highest burden of pneumonia and diarrhoea child deaths in the world.
  • This was stated in the ‘Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report’ released on Friday by the International Vaccine Access Centre (IVAC).
  • The report, which looked at progress in fighting pneumonia and diarrhoea in 15 countries with the greatest number of deaths from these illnesses, finds health systems are falling woefully short of ensuring that the most vulnerable children have access to prevention and treatment services.
  • International scenario:
    • The 15 countries that the report looked at the account for 70% of global pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths in children under five.
    • Globally, pneumonia and diarrhoea led to nearly one of every four deaths in children under five years of age in 2016.
    • Authors at the IVAC have also called on the global community to collect better data and target communities of greatest need.
  • The report analyses how effectively countries are delivering 10 key interventions :
    • Breastfeeding, vaccination, access to care, use of antibiotics, oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc supplementation to help protect against, prevent and treat, pneumonia and diarrhoea.
  • The measures are proven to help prevent death due to these illnesses and could help achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal target of reducing under-five mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births by 2030.

Recent news

 

 GENERAL STUDIES III

 Topic

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

 BANNERGHATTA NATIONAL PARK

News

  • ESZ around Bannerghatta National Park to be cut down.

Benarghatta National Park

  • Bannerghatta National Park, near Bangalore, Karnataka, was founded in 1970 and declared as a national park in 1974.
  • In 2002 a portion of the park, became a biological reserve, the Bannerghatta Biological Park.
  • There are ancient temples in the park for worship and it is a destination for trekking and hiking.

Ecological Sensitive Zones

  • An ecologically sensitive area is one that is protected by the government given the sheer number of species, plants and animals endemic to the region.
  • According to the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the government can prohibit industrial operations such as mining, sand quarrying and building thermal power plants in sensitive areas.
  • Purpose of asserting ESZ as a no-development zone:
    • The prime objective of the ESZ is to set up a kind of shock absorber for the protected areas which will also act as a transition zone from areas of higher protection (parks, reserves, etc.) to areas involving lesser protection (urban settlements, industrial zones, etc.)

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

 NATIONAL TIGER CONSERVATION AUTHORITY

News

  • NTA to form a new team to probe recent tiger killings.

 National Tiger Conservation Authority

  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change constituted under enabling provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • It was amended in 2006, for strengthening tiger conservation, as per powers and functions assigned to it under the said Act.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority has been fulfilling its mandate within the ambit of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 for strengthening tiger conservation in the country by retaining an oversight through advisories/normative guidelines, based on the appraisal of tiger status, ongoing conservation initiatives and recommendations of specially constituted Committees.
  • Project Tiger’ is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Environment, Forests and Climate Change, providing funding support to tiger range States, for in-situ conservation of tigers in designated tiger reserves.
  • It has put the endangered tiger on an assured path of recovery by saving it from extinction, as revealed by the recent findings of the All India tiger estimation using the refined methodology.
  • Major objectives:
    • Providing statutory authority to Project Tiger so that compliance of its directives become legal.
    • Fostering accountability of Center-State in the management of Tiger Reserves, by providing a basis for MoU with States within our federal structure.
    • Providing for an oversight by Parliament.
    • Addressing livelihood interests of local people in areas surrounding Tiger Reserves.

Recent news

 

 FACTS FOR PRELIMS

 QUEEN HEO MEMORIAL

About

  • A memorial of the Korean queen Heo Hwang-ok is located in Ayodhya, India.
  • Heo Hwang-ok is a legendary queen mentioned in the 13th-century chronicle Samguk Yusa.
  • In 2001, a Korean delegation, which included the North Korean ambassador to India, inaugurated a memorial dedicated to her in Ayodhya.

Recent news

 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE NEWS ANCHORS

About

  • Calling it a “world first”, Xinhua news agency this week debuted a pair of virtual news anchors amid a state-directed embrace of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI).
  • China in 2017 unveiled plans to become a world leader in AI and other high-tech fields, though it has since toned down the rhetoric amid a trade war with the United States.
  • The digital anchors offer certain advantages over humans, such as being able to work 24 hours a day and to quickly disseminate breaking news.

Recent news

 

 

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