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Darpan News Analysis , 08 Nov 2018

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Items at a glance

GENERAL STUDIES II

  • Protecting Against Polio.
  • Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
  • Extradition Agreement Among India And Morocco.
  • MoU between India For Italy.

GENERAL STUDIES III

  • Advanced MOTOR Fuels Technology Programme.

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

  • International Energy Agency.
  • Global It Challenge For Youth With Disabilities.

 

GENERAL STUDIES II

 Topic

  • Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 PROTECTING AGAINST POLIO

News

  • Why the inactivated polio vaccine is essential for India.

Introduction

  • With wild poliovirus strains reduced by 99.9% since 1988, the world is inching towards eradicating polio.
  • But unfortunately, more children today are affected by the live, weakened virus contained in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) that is meant to protect them.
  • The weakened virus in the vaccine can circulate in the environment, occasionally turn neurovirulent and cause vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in unprotected children.
  • While the wild-type virus has caused 22 and 25 polio cases in 2017 and 2018 (as on October 30, 2018), respectively, in just two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan), VDPV was responsible for 96 and 75 polio cases in more countries during the same periods.

Major highlights

  • The VAPP burden:
    • While circulating VDPV strains are tracked, and outbreaks and cases are recorded and shared, little is known about vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, particularly in India.
    • VAPP occurs when the virus turns virulent within the body of a recently vaccinated child and causes polio.
    • With high-income countries switching to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that uses a dead virus to immunise children, the VAPP burden is concentrated in low-income countries which continue to use the OPV.
  • Indian scenario:
    • In spite of the World Health Organisation asking all countries using the OPV to include a “continuous and effective system of surveillance” to monitor the frequency of VAPP in 1982, India did not comply.
    • Data on VAPP became available only years after active polio surveillance was initiated in 1997.
    • However, even after 1997, India did not count VAPP cases.
    • The WHO had suggested a rate of 1 case of VAPP per million births and had estimated the annual global burden of VAPP to be approximately 120 cases in 2002.
    • Under these circumstances, India’s share would be merely 25 VAPP cases per year, based on the annual birth cohort of 25 million. But the observed number of cases in India in 1999 was 181.
    • Despite knowing that there is a higher burden of polio caused by oral vaccines, India continued to use the OPV.
  • Preference of IPV over OPV:
    • The primary objective of polio vaccination is to prevent the disease, which the OPV failed to fully achieve.
    • The OPV was used for eradicating purposes but without fully protecting the children.
    • It is easier to administer the OPV than the IPV and the cost per dose of OPV is also lower than that of the IPV.
    • However, the OPV fared poorly on two important counts: safety and efficacy.
    • While high-income countries preferred the IPV, India and other low-income countries continued to rely on the OPV.
    • India licensed the IPV only in 2006 but did not introduce it in routine immunisation.

Switching to IPV

  • The reason for not switching over to the IPV is because global production was too low to meet India’s demand It needs 48 million doses per year to immunise all children.
  • The IPV is essential for post-wild-type poliovirus eradication, to get rid of VDPV and VAPP.
  • The globally synchronised switch from trivalent to bivalent OPV in mid-2016 was accompanied by administering a single dose of the IPV prior to administering the OPV.

Conclusion

  • With no way of monitoring VAPP cases in India, there is no way of knowing if the use of a single dose of IPV followed by immunisation using bivalent OPV has led to a reduction in the number of VAPP cases.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

 INTERMEDIATE RANGE NUCLEAR FORCES TREATY

News

  • Last month, U.S. President Donald Trump declared that the U.S. is quitting the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, a bilateral agreement with Russia signed in 1987.

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

  • The 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty required the United States and the Soviet Union to eliminate and permanently forswear all of their nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 Kilometers.
  • Treaty marked the first time the superpowers had agreed to reduce their nuclear arsenals, eliminate an entire category of nuclear weapons and utilize extensive onsite- inspections for verification.
  • As a result of the INF treaty, the United States and the Soviet Union destroyed a total 2,692 short medium and intermediate-range missiles by the treaty’s implementation deadline of June 1, 1991.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

 EXTRADITION AGREEMENT AMONG INDIA AND MOROCCO

News

  • Cabinet approves signing and ratifying the Extradition Agreement between India and Morocco.

Major highlights

  • The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister has approved signing and ratifying the Extradition Agreement between India and Morocco.
  • Important benefits:
    • The Agreement will provide a strong legal base for the extradition of fugitive offenders who are accused of economic offences, terrorism and other serious offences in one Contracting State and found in another Contracting State.
    • This Treaty will also strengthen bilateral relations to deal with criminal elements acting against the national interest of both India and Morocco.

QUICK RECAP

What is Extradition?

  • As defined by Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, ‘Extradition is the delivery on the part of one State to another of those whom it is desired to deal with for crimes of which they have been accused or convicted and are justifiable in the Courts of the other State’.
  • An Extradition request for an accused can be initiated in the case of under-investigation, under-trial and convicted criminals.
  • In cases under investigation, abundant precautions have to be exercised by the law enforcement agency to ensure that it is in possession of prima facie evidence to sustain the allegation before the Courts of Law in the Foreign State.

The legislative basis for Extradition in India

  • The Extradition Act 1962 provides India’s legislative basis for extradition.
  • To consolidate and amend the law relating to the extradition of fugitive criminals and to provide for matters connected therewith, or incidental thereto, the Extradition Act of 1962 was enacted.
  • It consolidated the law relating to the extradition of the criminal fugitive from India to foreign states.

What are Extradition treaties?

  • Section 2(d) of Extradition Act 1962 defines an ‘Extradition Treaty’ as a Treaty, Agreement or Arrangement made by India with a Foreign State, relating to the Extradition of fugitive criminals and includes any treaty, agreement or arrangement relating to the Extradition of fugitive criminals made before the 15th day of August 1947, which extends to and is binding on, India.
  • Extradition treaties are traditionally bilateral in character.

 Nodal authority for extradition in India

  • CPV Division, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India is the Central/Nodal Authority that administers the Extradition Act and it processes incoming and outgoing Extradition Requests.

Which countries can India make an extradition request to?

  • India is able to make an extradition request to any country.
  • India’s treaty partners have obligations to consider India’s requests.
  • In the absence of a treaty, it is a matter for the foreign country, in accordance with its domestic laws and procedures, to determine whether the country can agree to India’s extradition request on the basis of assurance of reciprocity.
  • Similarly, any country can make an extradition request to India.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

 MOU BETWEEN INDIA AND ITALY

News

  • The Centre approved the signing of a pact with Italy for facilitating customised training programmes on Labour and employment.

Major highlights

  • The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister has approved the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Italy for training and education in the fields of Labour and Employment.
  • Benefits:
    • The MoU will facilitate an expansion of the training and education activities to promote decent work in the world of work, through:
      • Conducting joint training programmes on training methodologies and techniques;
      • Developing new training modules for different social partners;
      • Organizing customized training programmers in different themes on labour and employment;
      • Undertaking an evaluation of training methodologies;
      • Exchanging of good practices in training programmes, particularly in the context of labor administration; assisting each other in the delivery and facilitation of the training modules and organizing study visits.
      • Exchanging of trainers for sharing of knowledge and information.
    • Major impact:
      • The major impact of the MoU would be up-gradation of technical capacities of both the institutions in responding to the challenges emanating from transformations in the world of work.
      • It will enhance the technical capabilities of developing and organising international training programmes and the evolution of V.V.Giri National Labour Institute (VVGNLI) as a leading training institution in the Asia-Pacific region.
      • The MoU will expand its outreach to a wide range of social partners from the entire Asia Pacific Region.

Recent news

 

GENERAL STUDIES III

 Topic

  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.

 ADVANCED MOTOR FUELS TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMME

News

  • The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister has been apprised of India joining as Member of Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme (AMF TCP)under International Energy Agency (IEA).

Major highlights

  • The primary goal of joining AMF TCP by Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG) is to facilitate the market introduction of Advanced motor fuels/ Alternate fuels with an aim to bring down emissions and achieve higher fuel efficiency in the transport sector.
  • AMF TCP also provides an opportunity for fuel analysis, identifying new/ alternate fuels for deployment in the transport sector and allied R&D activities for a reduction in emissions in fuel-intensive sectors.
  • Significance:
    • The government of India has recently notified National Policy on Biofuels-2018 which focusses on giving impetus to R&D in the field of advanced biofuels such as 2G Ethanol, Bio-CNG, biomethanol, Drop-in fuels, DME etc.
    • These advanced fuels can be produced from various kind of wastes such as crop residues, Municipal solid waste, Industrial waste, waste gases, Food waste, plastic etc.
    • Though some of these advanced biofuels have successfully been deployed in a few countries, India is still awaiting its deployment in the transport sector.
    • These advanced fuels are presently in their early stages of development in our Country and necessitate extensive R&D for making these fuels a viable option for meeting our energy needs.
  • The benefits of participation in AMF TCP:
    • Shared costs and pooled technical resources.
    • The duplication of efforts is avoided and national Research and Development capabilities are strengthened.
    • There is an information exchange about best practices, the network of researchers and linking research with practical implementation.
    • After becoming a member, India will initiate R&D in other areas of its interest in advanced biofuels and other motor fuels in view of their crucial role in substituting fossil fuel imports.

Alternative Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme

  • AMF TCP is an international platform for co-operation among countries to promote cleaner and more energy efficient fuels & vehicle technologies.
  • The programme looks upon the transport fuel issues in a systemic way by taking into account the activities of AMF TCP relate to R&D, deployment and dissemination of Advanced Motor Fuels the production, distribution and end-use related aspects.

Recent news

 

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY

About

  • Founded in 1974, the IEA was initially designed to help countries co-ordinate a collective response to major disruptions in the supply of oil, such as the crisis of 1973/4.
  • The IEA examines the full spectrum of energy issues including oil, gas and coal supply and demand, renewable energy technologies, electricity markets, energy efficiency, access to energy, demand-side management and much more.
  • Through its work, the IEA advocates policies that will enhance the reliability, affordability and sustainability of energy in its 30 member countries and beyond.
  • The four main areas of IEA focus are:
    • Energy Security:
      • Promoting diversity, efficiency, flexibility and reliability for all fuels and energy sources.
    • Economic Development:
      • Supporting free markets to foster economic growth and eliminate energy poverty.
    • Environmental Awareness:
      • Analyzing policy options to offset the impact of energy production and use on the environment, especially for tackling climate change and air pollution.
    • Engagement Worldwide:
      • Working closely with partner countries, especially major emerging economies, to find solutions to shared energy and environmental concerns.

Recent news

 

GLOBAL IT CHALLENGE FOR YOUTH WITH DISABILITIES

About

  • “Global IT Challenge for Youth with Disabilities, 2018” is being organised by the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPwD) under Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • India is hosting the event in collaboration with the Government of Korea and Rehabilitation International (RI).
  • The Global IT Challenge for disability is a capacity building project that helps youth with disabilities to overcome their limitations and challenges for a better future through access to ICT.
  • Significance:
    • It will alleviate the digital divide and expand the participation of youth with disabilities in the society.
    • It propagates implementation of the United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) – Article 21 relates to access to information.

Recent news

 

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