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Darpan News Analysis , 06 Nov 2018

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Items at a glance

GENERAL STUDIES II

  • No Respite From Poverty For Muslims.
  • Iran OIL: India China Get Relief.

GENERAL STUDIES III

  • International Telecommunication Union.
  • Ozone Layer Is Recovering.

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

  • Women Of India Organic Festival.
  • Ganga Gram Concept.

 

GENERAL STUDIES II

 Topic

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 NO RESPITE FROM POVERTY FOR MUSLIMS

News

  • Government intervention is required to improve educational and economic indicators.

Introduction

  • The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) labour force survey reports that the economic condition of Muslims does not show despite India being the fastest-growing large economy. any signs of improvement
  • An analysis of the data on economic and educational indicators for various religious groups reveals that Muslims are facing a vicious circle of poverty.

Lowest education levels

  • The NSSO’s 68th round (2011-12) provides estimates of education levels and job market indicators across major religious communities in India.
  • The educational attainment of Muslims is the least among all these communities.
  • In urban areas, the number of male Muslim postgraduates is as low as 15 per 1,000.
  • This number is about four times lower than that of other communities, including Hindus, Christians and Sikhs.

Major reasons cited

  • Low levels of school education or of illiteracy:
    • Poor achievement at higher levels of education is partly a reflection of similarly low levels of school education or of illiteracy.
    • Around half the Muslim population over 15 years is either illiterate or has only primary or middle school education.
    • Compared to other communities, the distribution of the Muslim population is least at the higher levels of education and highest at the lower levels of education.
  • Reduced attendance rate:
    • Likewise, the current attendance rate among Muslims is least across all age groups.
    • The number of Muslim males of 5-14 years in urban areas attending educational institutions is 869 per 1,000 persons, which is the least among all religious groups.
    • It is higher among Christians (981), followed by Sikhs (971), though it is lower among Hindus (955), possibly because Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have lower rates.
    • The gaps in the current attendance rates of Muslims and those of other religious groups are increasingly pronounced at higher age groups.
  • Lower Income level and higher cost of education:
    • Muslims have the lowest attendance rates and educational attainment, especially in higher education, can be explained by their income level and higher costs for post-secondary education.
    • According to the NSSO survey, the average per capita consumption expenditure (used as an indicator of income) among Muslims is just ₹66 per day, which is the least among all religious groups.
    • Although children up to age 14 have a right to free and compulsory education, the average course fee per student for upper primary education is still ₹508 for the academic session.
  • Poverty:
    • The high level of illiteracy among Muslims and the low levels of general education ensure that they are trapped in a vicious circle of poverty.
  • Unemployment:
    • The lack of higher education is adversely affecting their job indicato
    • The dynamics of labour markets are largely a function of the degrees of knowledge and skills.
    • For example, the labour force participation rate (LFPR), defined as the number of persons either employed or seeking jobs, is significantly linked to the desire for work, which in turn is dependent upon educational attainment.
    • Similarly, the quality of employment is strongly linked to levels of education and skills.
    • Therefore, if a community is lagging in education, it risks being trapped in a vicious circle of poverty.

Way forward

  • The Central and State governments could take concerted steps to help Indian Muslims escape this vicious circle of poverty.
  • One way to improve their situation is to provide a special incentive and subsidy system for higher education.
  • That will ensure that school going students continue to higher levels of schooling and higher education.
  • Similarly, students who don’t wish to continue in general academic education must have access to vocational education from Class 9 onwards.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

 IRAN OIL: INDIA CHINA GET RELIEF

News

  • As sanctions on Tehran take effect, U.S. announces list of nations with waivers.

Major highlights

  • India is one of eight countries to receive temporary exemptions from U.S. sanctions on Iran.
  • S have decided to issue temporary allotments to a handful of countries, responsible to the specific circumstances and to ensure a well-supplied oil market.
  • The U.S. will be granting these exemptions to China, India, Italy, Greece, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Turkey.
  • Each country on the list had demonstrated “significant reductions “ of the purchase of Iranian crude over the past six months.
  • China and India, in that order, are the top two importers of Iranian oil.
  • India’s oil imports from Iran:
    • In the last fiscal year, India, which imports over 80% of its oil, sourced some 10% of its oil imports, or just over 22 million tons from Iran.
    • The Indian Oil Corporation is the biggest Indian customer for Iranian oil.
  • The European Union, which has stayed in the deal, has been frustrated by the America’s efforts to stifle European business’s activities with Iran.

QUICK RECAP

U.S sanctions on Iran and its impacts on India

  • S has issued sanctions on Iran and urged international communities to ease further ties with Iran.
  • Such sanctions has caused serious implications to oil deficit countries like India, where majority of oil imports are from Iran due to its cheaper price tags.

India’s Iran voes 

  • US sanctions on energy import
  • US demand that India go down to zero (oil imports).
  • No waivers envisaged.
  • There may not be an exemption for Chabahar.

Impact on India

  • Constraining Indo Iran ties.
  • India’s connectivity ambitions go through Iran.
  • India doesn’t want to cede strategic space to China, which might happen.

Why Iran is relevant to India ?

  • India needs Iran for a link to Central Asia and Russia.
  • India wants to use to use the Chabahar port as an access point to Afghanistan.
  • It also links it to the International North – South corridor.
  • Chabahar and INSTC is key to India’s geo political ambitions of providing an alternative to China’s One Belt, One Road with very different collaborative philosophy.

Recent news

 

GENERAL STUDIES III

 Topic

  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.

 INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

News

  • India has been elected as a Member of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Major highlights

  • India has been elected as a Member of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Council for another 4-year term (2019-2022.
  • The elections to the Council were held during the ongoing ITU Plenipotentiary Conference 2018 at Dubai, UAE.
  • By securing 165 votes, India ranked third among the 13 countries elected to the Council from the Asia-Australasia region, and eighth among the 48 countries elected to the Council globally.
  • The ITU has 193 member states who elect representatives to the Council.
  • Significance:
    • India has been an active member of the ITU since 1869, earnestly supporting the development and propagation of telecom in the global community of nation.
    • The country has been a regular member of the ITU Council since 1952, and has played an important role in harmonizing the contributions of member States from the region, always respecting the principles of equality and consensus-building.

QUICK RECAP

International Telecommunication Union

  • The International Telecommunication Union originally the International Telegraph Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technology.
  • promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to ITU coordinates that shared global use of the radio spectrum improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world.
  • ITU is active in areas such as :
    • Broadband internet.
    • Latest generation wireless technology.
    • Aeronautical and maritime navigation.
    • Radio astronomy.
    • Satellite based meteorology.
    • Convergence in fixed mobile phone.
    • Internet access.
    • Data voice, TV broadcasting and next generation works.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

 OZONE LAYER IS RECOVERING

News

  • Latest reports from the U.N sources claims that ozone hole is recovering.

Major highlights

  • The ozone layer that shields life from cancer causing solar rays is recovering at a rate of one to three percent per decade, reversing dangerous depletion caused by the release of harmful chemicals.
  • The four yearly review of the Montreal protocol, a 1987 ban on man-made gases that damage the fragile high-altitude ozone layer, found long term decreases in the atmospheric abundance of controlled ozone depleting substances and the ongoing recovery of stratospheric ozone.
  • UN had already hailed the success of the Protocol, which banned for phased out ozone depleting chemicals, including Chlorofluro carbons once used in refrigerators and spray cans.
  • However while most of the banned gases have been phased out, the report found an unexpected increase in production and emissions of CFC-11 from eastern Asia since 2012.

QUICK RECAP

Montreal Protocol

  • The Montreal Protocol, finalized in 1987, is a global agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS).
  • The stratospheric ozone layer filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation, which is associated with an increased prevalence of skin cancer and cataracts, reduced agricultural productivity, and disruption of marine ecosystems.
  • The United States ratified the Montreal Protocol in 1988 and has joined four subsequent amendments.
  • The United States has been a leader within the Protocol throughout its existence, and has taken strong domestic action to phase out the production and consumption of ODS such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons.
  • The Montreal Protocol has proven to be innovative and successful, and is the first treaty to achieve universal ratification by all countries in the world.
  • Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol:
    • On October 15, 2016, Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the Kigali amendment to phase down production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) worldwide.
    • HFCs are widely used alternatives to ozone depleting substances such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), already controlled under the Protocol.
    • It calls on all countries to gradually phase down their production and consumption of HFCs in the coming decades using the flexible, innovative, and effective approaches the Montreal Protocol has used for three decades.

Recent news

 

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

 WOMEN OF INDIA ORGANIC FESTIVAL

About

  • The 5th edition of the ‘Women of India National Organic Festival’ was inaugurated by Union Minister for Women and Child Development.
  • The Festival celebrates and promotes women entrepreneurs/producers and farmers in the organic field from across India.
  • This year’s edition is the largest ever and has a large vegan section as well as food court.
  • The participants are being encouraged to sell their products on a long term basis on WCD Ministry’s e-marketing portal Mahila-e-Haat.

Recent news

 

GANGA GRAM CONCEPT

About

  • Ganga Gram is a concept to transform the villages on the bank of river Ganga into ideal villages with emphasis on Open Defecation Free, Solid and Liquid Waste Management, Water Conservation, Ground Water Recharge, modern crematorium, tree plantation, organic and medicinal plants.
  • After declaration of all 4465 Ganga Bank villages as ODF, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation is working in the direction of sustaining the ODF status of this area.

Recent news

 

 

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