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Darpan News Analysis , 06 Dec 2018

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Items at a glance

GENERAL STUDIES II

  • Swatchata Pakhwada.
  • Juvenile Justice Act 2015.
  • Amendment To Aadhaar Act.
  • Mutual Assistance In Customs Matters.

GENERAL STUDIES III

  • Aviation Industry And Its Crisis.
  • Ombudsman Scheme For Digital Transactions.
  • National Mission For Clean Ganga.
  • Co2 Levels On Rise.
  • GSAT 11 Launched Successfully.

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

  • Green Ganga App.

 

GENERAL STUDIES II

 Topic

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 SWATCHATA PAKHWADA

News

  • Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM), Ministry of Finance observed Swachhata Pakhwada to mobilize its staff for voluntary work.

Swachhata Pakhwada

  • Swachhata Pakhwada started with an objective of bringing a fortnight of intense focus on the issues and practices of Swachhata by engaging GOI Ministries/Departments in their jurisdictions.
  • An annual calendar is pre-circulated among the Ministries to help them plan for the Pakhwada activities.
  • The Ministries observing Swachhata Pakhwada are monitored closely using online monitoring system of Swachhata Samiksha.
  • Through the Swachhata Samiksha portal action plans, images, videos related to Swachhata activities are uploaded and shared.
  • After observing Swachhata Pakhwada, Ministries/ Departments announce their achievements through a press conference and other communication tools.
  • For the Pakhwada fortnight, observing ministries are considered as Swachhata Ministries and are expected to bring qualitative Swachhata improvements in their jurisdictions.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

 JUVENILE JUSTICE ACT 2015

 News

  • Ministry of Women and Children has decided to formulate guidelines for Children’s hostel.

Major concern

  • The increasing trend of housing children on the request of parents who are unable to take care of them and their education or due to other circumstances which force parents to keep them at children’s homes, not registering under the Juvenile Justice Act has been witnessing across the country.
  • Exploitation of Children in Orphanages in the State of Tamil Nadu Vs Union of India:
    • Supreme Court in its order in the case directed that the definition of the expression ‘child in need of care and protection’ under Section 2 (14) of the JJ Act, 2015 should not be interpreted as an exhaustive definition.
    • The definition is illustrative and the benefits envisaged for the children in need of care and protection should be extended to all such children requiring State care and protection.
    • In, the same order, the Union and the State Governments have been directed to enforce minimum standards of care required for such children living in any facility either created by the Government system or by civil society organisations.

Juvenile justice act 2015

  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 has come into force and it repeals the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000.
  • The JJ Act, 2015 provides for strengthened provisions for both children in need of care and protection and children in conflict with law.
  • Key features of the act:
    • Change in nomenclature from ‘juvenile’ to ‘child’ or ‘child in conflict with law’.
    • Across the Act to remove the negative connotation associated with the word “juvenile”.
    • Inclusion of several new definitions such as orphaned abandoned and surrendered children; and petty, serious and heinous offences committed by children.
    • Clarity in powers, function and responsibilities of Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) and Child Welfare Committee (CWC).
    • Clear timelines for inquiry by Juvenile Justice Board (JJB).
    • Special provisions for heinous offences committed by children above the age of sixteen year.
    • Separate new chapter on Adoption to streamline adoption of orphan, abandoned and surrendered children.
    • Inclusion of new offences committed against children; and mandatory registration of Child Care Institutions.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 AMENDEMNT TO ADHAAR ACT

News

  • The government has recently proposed an amendment to Aadhaar act to give all citizens to withdraw their Aadhaar number.

Major highlights

  • The government is in the last stages of finalising a proposal to amend the Aadhaar Act to give all citizens an option to withdraw their Aadhaar number, including biometrics and the data.
  • This follows the Supreme Court judgment in September that upheld the validity of Aadhaar, however, with certain riders.
  • Section 57 of Aadhaar act:
    • The Section 57 of Aadhaar act empowers private bodies like telecom companies, e-commerce firms, cannot ask for biometric and other data from consumers for their services.
    • Earlier constitution Bench had struck down Section 57 of the Act .
    • The Bench also declared that seeking to link it with bank accounts and SIM cards was unconstitutional.
  • UIDAI proposal:
    • The initial proposal was prepared by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).
    • It submitted that once a child turns 18, he/she will be given six months to decide if he/she wants to withdraw.
    • The Ministry further recommended that the option to withdraw be made available to all citizens, and not be limited to a particular group.
  • Regarding Section 33(d):
    • The court had also struck down Section 33(2), which allowed disclosure of Aadhaar information for national security reasons on the orders of an officer not below Joint Secretary.
    • It had said an officer above Joint Secretary should consult a judicial officer and together take a call.

QUICK RECAP

Aadhaar Act

  • The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016 was introduced by Union Ministry of Finance.
  • The Bill intends to provide for targeted delivery of subsidies and services to individuals residing in India by assigning them unique identity numbers, called Aadhaar numbers.
  • Applications of Aadhaar as per act:
    • To verify the identity of a person receiving a subsidy or a service, the government may require them to have an Aadhaar number.
    • If a person does not have an Aadhaar number, government will require them to apply for it, and in the meanwhile, provide an alternative means of identification.
    • Any public or private entity can accept the Aadhaar number as a proof of identity of the Aadhaar number holder, for any purpose.
    • Aadhaar number cannot be a proof of citizenship or domicile.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

 MUTUAL ASSISTANCE IN CUSTOMS MATTERS

News

  • An agreement was signed between Republic of India and Republic of Peru on custom matters.

Major highlights

  • An Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Peru on Co-operation and Mutual Assistance in Customs Matters.
  • It was signed on the sidelines of the 80th Session of the Policy Commission Meeting of the World Customs Organisations (WCO) .
  • The three day 80th Session of the Policy Commission Meeting of the WCO is being organised by the Central Board of Customs and Indirect Taxes (CBIC).
  • Significance:
    • The Agreement provides a legal framework for sharing of information and intelligence between the Customs authorities of the two countries.
    • It will help in the proper application of Customs laws, prevention and investigation of Customs offences.
    • The Agreement will also help in the availability of relevant information for the prevention and investigation of Customs offences.
    • The Agreement is expected to facilitate trade and ensure efficient clearance of goods traded between the two countries.

QUICK RECAP

Worlds Customs Organisation

  • The World Customs Organization (WCO), established in 1952 as the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) is an independent intergovernmental body.
  • Its mission is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of Customs administrations.
  • The WCO represents 182 Customs administrations across the globe that collectively process approximately 98% of world trade.
  • As the global centre of Customs expertise, the WCO is the only international organization with competence in Customs matter.
  • Besides the vital role played by the WCO in stimulating the growth of legitimate international trade, its efforts to combat fraudulent activities are also recognized internationally.

Recent news

 

GENERAL STUDIES III

 Topic

  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.

 AVIATION INDUSTRY AND ITS CRISIS

News

  • Rising crude oil prices coupled with rupee depreciation, three main publicly listed airlines in the country had slipped from profitability to steep losses.

Major highlights

  • Knowing the crisis:
    • The three main publicly listed airlines in the country IndiGo, SpiceJet and Jet Airways slipped from profitability to steep losses in the first nine months of the current calendar year.
    • These airlines together account for 70% of the domestic market share.
  • Reasons cited for the loss:
    • Rise in crude oil prices:
      • With crude oil prices having risen over the past year and a half, the cost of Aviation Turbine Fuel saw a 40% rise.
      • Fuel accounts for the biggest expenditure for an airline anywhere between 30 and 40% of the total expenditure incurred.
    • Rupee depreciation:
      • At the same time, the rupee has seen a consistent fall and even breached 74 to a dollar, though it has stabilised to a degree now.
      • This meant that fuel costs apart, airlines were spending more on payments made in foreign currency for engine lease rentals, and maintenance and purchase of spare parts.
    • Rise in operational costs:
      • Rise in operational costs, the airlines have been unable to raise fares because of stiff competition among them.
    • Impacts of aviation industry crisis:
      • Regarding connectivity:
        • An airline shutting down could impact connectivity and compress capacity on important routes and drive up airfares.
      • Economical impacts:
        • Air travel is no more a luxury, but a necessity, and impacts the economy.
        • So, possible airline failures will impact the public directly and indirectly.
      • Way forward:
        • Short-term cyclical issues are unlikely to impact the long-term strategic outlook.
        • India is the aviation market of the 21st century and experts see a profitable future for most Indian carriers, if infrastructure, policy and regulatory framework improve.
        • According to the International Air Transport Association, the global aviation body, India will be the third biggest aviation market by 2024 after China and the U.S.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

OMBUDSMAN SCHEME FOR DIGITAL TRANSACTIONS

News

  • RBI on its bimonthly policy announcement has suggested setting up of Ombudsman scheme for digital transactions.

Major highlights

  • With digital transactions growing exponentially in India, so have the complexities and challenges such as fraudulent transactions.
  • Hence, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has decided to set up an ombudsman scheme for digital transactions to address these issues and promote customer confidence.
  • The banking regulator, in its bi-monthly policy announcement said that there is an emerging need for a dedicated, cost-free and expeditious grievance redressal mechanism for strengthening consumer confidence.
  • RBI states that the scheme will be administered and funded by the RBI.
  • It will not only cover entities falling under the central bank’s regulatory jurisdiction, but also firms that provide related services.
  • Significance of the move:
    • Ever since demonetisation, digital transactions, including mobile wallets and UPI, have growth three-fold according to a recent data by MeiTY.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

 NATIONAL MISSION FOR CLEAN GANGA

 News

  • The National Mission for Clean ganga is now focussing on cleaning the tributaries of River Ganga in a big way. NMCG has approved projects worth Rs 841.crore on Ganga tributaries in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

National Mission for Clean Ganga

  • National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG) was registered as a society under the Societies Registration Act 1860.
  • It acted as implementation arm of National Ganga River Basin Authority(NGRBA) which was constituted under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act (EPA),1986.
  • The Act envisages five tier structure at national, state and district level to take measures for prevention, control and abatement of environmental pollution in river Ganga.
  • The five tier structure of NMCG is as follows:
    • National Ganga Council under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Prime Minister of India.
    • Empowered taskforce on river Ganga under chairmanship of Hon’ble Union Minister of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejunevation.
    • National Mission for Clean Ganga.
    • States Ganga committee.
    • District Ganga committees in every specified district abutting river Ganga and its tributaries in the States.
  • The NMCG has a 20,000-crore, centrally-funded, non-lapsable corpus and consists of nearly 288 projects.
  • NMCG has a two tier management structure and comprises of Governing Council and Executive Committee.
  • Scale of pollution in Ganga:
    • Most of the Ganga’s pollution is due to five States on the river’s main stem : Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal.
    • Approximately 12,000 million litres a day (MLD) of sewage is generated in the Ganga basin, for which there is currently a treatment capacity of just 4,000 MLD.
    • Industrial pollution from tanneries in Kanpur, distilleries, paper and sugar mills in the Kosi, Ramganga and Kali river catchments is a major contributor.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

CO2 LEVELS ON RISE

News

  • Study conducted by the researchers at the University of East Anglia and the Global carbon project states that global carbon emissions are on record high.

Major highlights

  • Global carbon emissions are set to hit an all-time high of 37.1 billion tonnes of CO2 in 2018, according to researchers at the University of East Anglia (UEA) and the Global Carbon Project.
  • India, the third-highest contributor, is projected to see emissions rise by 6.3% from 2017.
  • The 2.7% projected global rise in 2018 has been driven by appreciable growth in coal use for the second year in a row, and sustained growth in oil and gas use, according to the study.
  • Second year in a row:
    • CO2 emissions have now risen for a second year, the study’s authors say, after three years of little to no growth from 2014 to 2016.
    • Biggest contributors of CO2 in 2018:
      • The 10 biggest emitters in 2018 are China, U.S., India, Russia, Japan, Germany, Iran, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and Canada.
      • The EU as a region of countries ranks third.
      • China’s emissions accounted for 27% of the global total, having grown an estimated 4.7% in 2018 and reaching a new all-time high.
    • Emissions in the U.S., which has withdrawn from its commitment to the Paris Agreement, account for 15% of the global total.
  • Limiting global warming to the 2015 Paris Agreement goal of keeping the global temperature increase this century to well below 2°C, would need carbon dioxide emissions to decline by 50% by 2030 and reach net zero by about 2050.
  • Though coal use contributed to the rise in 2018 from last year, it still remains below its historical high in 2013.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

GSAT 11 LAUNCHED SUCCESSFULLY

News

  • India has successfully launched the GSAT 11 satellite from the Spaceport in French Guinea.

Major highlights

  • Indian Space Research Organisation has successfully launched the heaviest and most-advanced high throughput communication satellite GSAT-11.
  • The 5,854Kg GSAT 11 will provide high data rate connectivity to users of Indian mainland and islands through 32 user beams in Ku-band and 8 hub beams in Ka-band.
  • GSAT -11 will boost the broadband connectivity to rural and inaccessible Gram Panchayats in the country coming under the Bharat Net Project, which is a part of Digital Indian programme.
  • Major applications:
    • To meet unprecedented data demands:
      • Greater capacity and high data rates over the region due to use of spot beam technology.
    • Supporting Bharat net project:
      • Substantial bandwidth coverage to gram panchayats for supporting e-governance and other platforms.
    • VSAT terminals:
      • Capacity platform to support huge subscriber base.
    • Unlock new applications:
      • Reaching out to different strata society through Digital India platform.

QUICK RECAP

Bharat Net project

  • BharatNet is a project of national importance to establish, by 2017, a highly scalable network infrastructure accessible on a non-discriminatory basis, to provide on demand, affordable broadband connectivity of 2 Mbps to 20 Mbps for all households and on demand capacity to all institutions, to realise the vision of Digital India, in partnership with States and the private sector.
  • The entire project is being funded by Universal service Obligation Fund (USOF), which was set up for improving telecom services in rural and remote areas of the country.
  • The objective is to facilitate the delivery of e-governance, e-health, e-education, e-banking, Internet and other services to the rural India.
  • Implementation:
    • The project is a Centre-State collaborative project, with the States contributing free Rights of Way for establishing the Optical Fibre Network.
    • The three-phase implementation of the BharatNet project is as follows:
      • The first phase envisages providing one lakh gram panchayats with broadband connectivity by laying underground optic fibre cable (OFC) lines.
      • The second phase will provide connectivity to all 2,50,500 gram panchayats in the country using an optimal mix of underground fiber, fiber over power lines, radio and satellite media.
      • In the third phase from 2019 to 2023, state-of-the-art, future-proof network, including fiber between districts and blocks, with ring topology to provide redundancy would be created.

Recent news

  

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

 GREEN GANGA APP

About

  • Green Ganga app is developed by Remote Sensing Centre of ISRO was recently to aid ganga rejunevation.
  • Green Ganga App is used for geo-tagging of saplings and delineation of plantation boundaries under ongoing afforestation activities of Namami Gange programme.
  • It was launched on the occasion of India Water Impact summit 2018.

Recent news

 

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