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Darpan News Analysis , 05 Dec 2018

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Items at a glance

GENERAL STUDIES I

  • First Ever Swadesh Darshan Project In Nagaland.

GENERAL STUDIES II

  • Rights Of Persons With Disabilities Act 2016.
  • Global Nutrition Report 2018.
  • Declining Trend Of Nutrition Levels.

GENERAL STUDIES III

  • Mangdecchi Power Project.
  • Indian Delegation At Cop 24.
  • India Water Impact Summit 2018.

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

  • International Day Of Disabled Persons.
  • Train 18.

 

GENERAL STUDIES I

 Topic

  • Art and culture, tourism and related aspects.

 FIRST EVER SWADESH DARSHAN PROJECT IN NAGALAND

News

  • Union Ministry of State for Tourism to inaugurate the first ever Swadesh Darshan Project in Nagaland.

Major highlights

  • The Development of Tribal Circuit: Peren-Kohima -Wokha Project under Swadesh Darshan scheme will be inaugurated by Ministry of State for Tourism in Nagaland.
  • This is the first project to be implemented in the state under Swadesh Darshan Scheme of Ministry of Tourism, Government of India.
  • The project “Development of Tribal Circuit: Peren-Kohima-Wokha” was sanctioned by the Ministry of Tourism.
  • Under the project the Ministry has developed facilities like Tribal Tourist Village, Eco Log Huts, Open Air Theatre, Tribal Rejuvenation Centre, Cafeteria, Helipad, Tourist Interpretation Centre, Wayside Amenities, Last Mile Connectivity, Public Conveniences, Multipurpose Hall, Nature Trails, Trekking Routes etc.
  • In addition to the above project, the Ministry has sanctioned another project in Nagaland “Development of Tribal circuit: Mokokchung–Tuensang-Mon”.

QUICK RECAP

Swadesh Darshan Scheme

  • Swadesh Darshan scheme is one among the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Tourism for development of thematic circuits in the country in a planned and prioritised manner.
  • Under this scheme the Government is focussing on development of quality infrastructure in the country with objective of providing better experience and facilities to the visitors on one hand and on other hand fostering the economic growth.

Recent news

  

GENERAL STUDIES II

 Topic

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

 RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ACT 2016

News

  • Only 10 States have notified rules under Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act.

Major highlights

  • A study conducted by the Disability Rights India Foundation (DRIF) on the implementation of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPWD) Act, across 24 States reveals that more than half have not notified the State rules, despite a significant lapse of time.
  • Ten States including Bihar, Chandigarh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Telengana, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal have notified the State rules, the survey said.
  • Deadlines missed:
    • The study was much concentrated on the States’ administrative machinery with respect to the implementation of Right of Persons with disabilities act.
    • It reveals that 79.2% of the States had not constituted the funds for implementation of the RPWD Act.
    • Among the five States to have constituted the funds, Tamil Nadu has allocated 10 crore while Himachal Pradesh has allocated ₹5 crore.
    • Though 5% of the States have appointed Commissioners for Persons with Disabilities, “the progress has not been substantial.
    • Only three States have constituted Advisory Committees, comprising of experts, to assist the State Commissioners” the study noted.
    • Out of the 24 States and Union Territories that responded to the study, Madhya Pradesh was ranked the highest, followed by Odisha, Meghalaya and Himachal Pradesh.
    • Andaman and Nicobar Islands along with Jammu and Kashmir ranked the lowest. The national capital was ranked number 12.
  • While 3% of the States have not notified Special Courts in the districts for trying offences under the Act.
  • 5% have not appointed a Special Public Prosecutors as mandated by the law, the study said.

QUICK RECAP

Rights of Persons with disabilities act 2016

  • The Rights of Persons with disabilities act 2016 is the disability legislation passed by the Indian Parliament to fulfill its obligation to the United Nations Convention of Rights of Persons with disabilities.
  • Salient features:
    • Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept.
    • The types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21 and the Central Government will have the power to add more types of disabilities.
    • Speech and Language Disability and Specific Learning Disability have been added for the first time. Acid Attack Victims have been included.
    • Dwarfism, muscular dystrophy have has been indicated as separate class of specified disability. The New categories of disabilities also included three blood disorders, Thalassemia, Hemophilia and Sickle Cell disease.
    • In addition, the Government has been authorized to notify any other category of specified disability.
    • Responsibility has been cast upon the appropriate governments to take effective measures to ensure that the persons with disabilities enjoy their rights equally with others.
    • Additional benefits such as reservation in higher education, government jobs, reservation in allocation of land, poverty alleviation schemes have been provided for persons with benchmark disabilities and those with high support needs.
    • Every child with benchmark disability between the age group of 6 and 18 years shall have the right to free education.
    • Government funded educational institutions as well as the government recognized institutions will have to provide inclusive education to the children with disabilities.
    • For strengthening the Prime Minister’s Accessible India Campaign, stress has been given to ensure accessibility in public buildings (both Government and private) in a prescribed time-frame.
    • The Bill provides for penalties for offences committed against persons with disabilities and also violation of the provisions of the new law.
    • Special Courts will be designated in each district to handle cases concerning violation of rights of PwDs.
    • Reservation in vacancies in government establishments has been increased from 3% to 4% for certain persons or class of persons with benchmark disability.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

 GLOBAL NUTRITION REPORT 2018

News

  • India’s national framework to improve nutrition must be upgraded on a priority basis.

Global Nutrition Report 2018

  • According to the Global Nutrition Report 2018 Of 141 countries, 41 (28 per cent) are affected by all three forms of malnutrition stunting among children, anaemia and obesity among women.
  • The report finds 22.2 per cent, or 150.8 million, children (those up to five years) to be stunted; 7.5 per cent (50.5 million) to be wasted and 5.6 per cent (38.3 million) to be overweight.
  • There has been a significant decrease in stunting from 32.6 per cent a year ago, but the report finds “there are significant disparities in progress at the subnational level.
  • While it has decreased to 9.6 per cent among Latin American and Carribean children, the proportion remains high in Asia (23.2 per cent) and in Africa (30.3 per cent).
  • The report terms progress in addressing underweight and anaemia among women as “extremely slow”. Anaemia, in fact, has risen slightly from the turn of the century to 32.8 per cent.
  • Instances of being overweight (those with a body mass index of 25 and above) and obese (BMI of 30 and above) are on the rise. Obesity is more common among women (15.1 per cent) than men (11.1 per cent).

India’s stance

  • Based on the facts for Global Nutrition Report 2018 an estimated 46.6 million who have low height for age live in India.
  • A quarter of the children display wasting (that is, low weight for height) as well.
  • District-level data show high and very high levels of stunting mainly in central and northern India (more than 30% and 40%, respectively), but less than 20% in almost the entire south.

Way forward

  • Role of social institutions:
    • Social institutions can work to improve nutrition and children’s welfare in free societies, and the absence of hunger enables people to develop their capabilities.
  • Improved nutritional policies:
    • Governments should acknowledge the linkages and commit themselves to improved nutritional policies.
  • Awareness generation:
    • More awareness generation is required in schemes such as Anganwadi Services scheme, which incorporates the Integrated Child Development Services, caters to children up to age six, and to pregnant and lactating women.
  • Rigorous periodic review and targeted interventions:
    • If the schemes and policies which are intended to boost nutritional standards not worked well in several States, it must be subjected to a rigorous review and targeted interventions for supplementary nutrition made.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

 DECLINING TREND OF NUTRITION LEVELS

News

  • According to the recent reports on nutritional levels there is an reversal of nutritional levels all over the world.

Introduction

  • A decade-long phenomenon of the number of undernourished people in the world falling between 2003 and 2014, has been found to be reversed.

Major concerns

  • Not meeting of minimum dietary energy requirement:
    • According to the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations, the world’s population suffering from hunger the food they consume isn’t sufficient to provide the minimum dietary energy requirement.
  • Prolonged declining trend:
    • There is a reversal of prolonged declining trend in world hunger has come despite a collapse in international agri-commodity prices after 2014.

Factors contributed to global undernourishment

  • Displacement of civilian population and food insecurity:
    • There is displacement of civilian population and food insecurity resulting from conflicts.
    • Roughly 500 million out of the world’s 821 million undernourished people live in conflict-ridden regions such as West Asia, North and northern sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and Eastern Europe.
    • Violent conflicts, both state-based and between organised armed groups, have increased dramatically, especially after 2010.
  • Climatic variations:
    • The climate variations (in temperature and rainfall) and extremes (leading to droughts, heat waves, floods, storms, etc) constitutes a major factor for rising instances of  global undernourishment.
    • The 2015-16 El Niño the abnormal warming of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean waters, known to adversely impact monsoon rainfall in countries such as India.
    • It also contributed to 2016 being the warmest and 2015 the second warmest year based on recorded global average temperatures.
  • Economic slowdown:
    • The third explanation given by the experts is the economic slowdown witnessed across the world.
    • These result in lower fiscal revenues and foreign exchange earnings for commodity exporting countries, whose governments, then, have less money to spend on welfare programmes.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 WTO TO SET UP DISPUTE PANEL

News

  • WTO to set up dispute settlement panel to ease India -U.S trade tensions.

Major highlights

  • The dispute settlement body of the World Trade Organisation has agreed to set up a panel to assess if high customs duties imposed by the U.S on certain steel and aluminium products infringes global trade norms.
  • Consultation is the first step of the dispute settlement process at the WTO.
  • If the two countries are not able to reach a mutually agreed solution through consultation, a country can request for a WTO dispute settlement panel to review the matter.
  • Background:
    • Imposition of high import duties on certain items by the U.S has impacted exports of these products by Indian businesses.
    • India has also alleged that the U.S move is also not in conform with global trade norms.
    • On this backdrop these incidents, India had earlier approached Geneva based World Trade Organisation for setting up of the dispute panel as both countries failed to resolve the issue in a bilateral consultation process.
  • Besides India, Russia, Norway, Canada, Mexico, Switzerland and European Union have also dragged the US in the WTO on Washington move to impose 25 percent and 10 percent import duties on certain items.
  • Significance of the move:
    • India has a significant export interest in the U.S in the steel and aluminium sector.
    • Indian exports steel and aluminium goods worth about $1.6 billion a year to the U.S had imposed these duties on grounds of national security.

Recent news

 

GENERAL STUDIES III

 Topic

  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

 MANGDECCHI POWER PROJECT

News

  • India is expected to commission a major hydropower project in Bhutan.

Mangdecchu Hydroelectric Project

  • The Mangdechhu hydroelectric project is a 720MW run-of-river power plant being built on the Mangdechhu River in Trongsa Dzongkhag District of central Bhutan.
  • Mangdechhu Hydroelectric Project Authority (MHPA), which is constituted by the Indian Government and the Royal Government of Bhutan, is developing the project.
  • Mangdechhu is one of the ten hydroelectric projects planned under the Royal Government of Bhutan’s initiative to generate 10,000MW hydropower by 2020 with support from the Government of India.
  • Most of the electricity generated by the Mangdechhu hydropower project will be used to meet the energy requirements of Bhutan and the surplus electricity will be exported to India.
  • The produced electricity will be transmitted to the Jigmeling substation in Bhutan by means of two 80km-long 400kV double-circuit transmission lines.
  • Electricity to the Indian grid is proposed to be transmitted from Jigmeling to Salakati or Siliguri.
  • Significance:
    • The cooperation in the hydropower sector was a sign of strength of the time-tested ties between the two countries.
    • Commissioning of the project will mark a highpoint in bilateral ties between the two countries.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Environment, conservation and related aspects.

  INDIAN DELEGATION AT COP 24

News

  • Indian delegation at COP 24 will be led by Union Ministry of Environment.

Major highlights

  • The 24th meeting of Conference of Parties (COP-24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be held at Katowice, Poland.
  • COP-24 is very significant as it is expected to finalise guidelines for implementation of the Paris Agreement adopted in 2016.
  • Significance:
    • India strongly supports the objective of the Paris Agreement to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping the global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
    • India considers it important from the point of view of eradicating poverty and caring for the poor and the marginalised.
    • The Agreement also focuses on developing country parties’ need to adapt to adverse impacts of climate change, in a manner that it does not put an additional burden on them.
    • During the COP-24, India would like to emphasise its concern for climate change and reaffirm its commitments to finalisation of the Paris Agreement Work Programme (PAWP).
  • Gaps in adaptation and mitigation:
    • Significant gaps in pre-2020 climate efforts exist not only in mitigation but also in adaptation and support to developing countries. in adaptation and mitigation of climatic efforts.
    • These implementation gaps will present an additional burden to developing countries in the post-2020 period.
    • Therefore, the key concern for India is to ensure that no undue burden is shifted onto developing countries in the post-2020 period.
  • India’s role in global an domestic action on climate change:
    • India, even though not a part of the problem, has been taking a leadership role in the global and domestic action on climate change.
    • India has undertaken ambitious mitigation and adaptation actions in the field of clean energy, especially renewable energy, enhancement of energy efficiency, development of less carbon-intensive and resilient urban centers, promotion of waste to wealth, safe, smart and sustainable green transportation network, abatement of pollution and efforts to enhance carbon sink through creation of forest and tree cover.
    • Renewable and clean energy:
      • The ambitious goal of generating 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022, and initiatives on smart cities, electric vehicles, energy efficiency initiatives etc. have now made India one of the global leaders in climate action.
      • With the achievement of about 72 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2018 out of a targeted 175 GW, India stands at 4th position globally in wind power, 6th position in solar power installed capacity, and overall 5th position in renewable power.
    • Reducing emissions:
      • India made a voluntary pledge in 2009 to reduce the emission intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 20-25 per cent from 2005 levels by 2020 (excluding emissions from agriculture).
      • India enhanced its climate goals in 2015 outlining eight (8) goals for 2021-2030, including reduction of the emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35 per cent from 2005 levels by 2030.
      • India’s climate actions are synchronised with its development goals and simultaneously reflect its bold vision for combating climate change.
    • Champions of Earth award:
      • United Nations’ highest environmental honour, UNEP “Champions of the Earth” award was conferred on Indian Prime Minister in the policy leadership category for his pioneering work in championing the ISA and for his unprecedented pledge to eliminate all single-use plastic in India by 2022.
    • Indian Pavilion at COP 24:
      • On the sidelines of COP-24, India will be setting up a Pavilion to create awareness about India’s positive climate actions in various sectors of the
      • The theme of this year’s India Pavilion is ‘One World One Sun One Grid’ as highlighted by our Hon’ble Prime Minister during the first assembly of the International Solar Alliance.
      • India Pavilion will strive to become an ideal platform for the exchange of innovative ideas for the world to come together and take action.

QUICK RECAP

Champions of Earth Award

  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) established Champions of the Earth in 2005 as an annual awards programme to recognize outstanding environmental leaders from the public and private sectors, and from civil society.
  • Typically, five to seven laureates are selected annually.
  • Each laureate is invited to an award ceremony to receive a trophy, give an acceptance speech and take part in a press conference. No financial awards are conferred.
  • This awards programme is a successor to UNEP’s Global 500 Roll of Honour.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.
  • It then entered into force on 21 March 1994, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified it.
  • The UNFCCC objective is to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

Recent news

 

Topic

  • Environment, water conservation and related aspects.

 INDIA WATER IMPACT SUMMIT 2018

News

  • Union Ministry for Water resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation will inaugurate India Water Summit 2018 2018.

India Water Impact Summit 2018

  • The India Water Impact Summit is an annual event where stakeholders get together to discuss, debate and develop model solutions for some of the biggest water related problems in the country.
  • The discussions this year will be on rejuvenation of the Ganga River Basin.
  • There will be multi-country dialogue on the subject, with showcasing of technological innovations, research, policy frameworks and funding models from India and abroad.
  • A number of Indian Central Government Ministries as well as all key decision makers responsible for delivering the rejuvenation of the Ganga will also be present at the Summit.
  • Summit will focus on three key aspects:
    • Spotlight on 5 states:
      • Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi and Bihar. The objective is to showcase the efforts and works going on within the respective states.
    • Ganga Financing Forum:
      • The 2018 Summit also introduces the inaugural Ganga Financing Forum that will bring a number of institutions to a common knowledge, information and partnership platform.
      • The Hybrid Annuity Model has redefined the economic landscape of water and waste-water treatment in India.
      • All tenders have been successfully bid out and financial closures being achieved.
    • Technology and Innovation:
      • Implementation of the pilot/demonstration programme known as the Environment Technology Verification (ETV) process.
      • This will for addressing the problems prevalent in the provide an opportunity to technology and innovation companies from around the world to showcase their solutions river basin.

Recent news

 

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

 INTERNATIONAL DAY OF DISABLED PERSONS

 About

  • International Day of People with Disability (IDPwD) is held annually on 3 December each year.
  • IDPwD is a United Nations sanctioned day that is celebrated internationally.
  • It aims to increase public awareness, understanding and acceptance of people with disability and celebrate their achievements and contributions.
  • The 2018 theme: Empowering persons with disabilities and ensuring inclusiveness and equality.

Recent news

 

TRAIN 18

About

  • Train 18, developed indigenously by the Integral Coach Factory (ICF).
  • It is an engineless train which is not only fast but also comfortable.
  • It also provides safety to passengers as its coaches are fitted with fire-resistance fibre composites.
  • Train 18, which is self-propelled on electric traction like metro trains, will start replacing the existing train fleet of the Shatabdi Express next year.
  • It also offers features such as automatic doors with retractable footsteps, onboard Wi-Fi and infotainment, GPS-based passenger information system, modular toilets with bio-vacuum systems, roller blinds and diffused LED lighting, and disabled-friendly toilets.

Recent news

 

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