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Current Affairs Quiz , 10 Nov 2018

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1) Consider the following statements

I) A partial protection against double jeopardy is a Fundamental Right guaranteed under Article 22 of the Constitution of India
II) This provision enshrines the concept of autrefois convict, that no one convicted of an offence can be tried or punished a second time.

Identify the correct option from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: b
• The bar of double jeopardy does not arise if an accused was discharged of a criminal offence, even before the commencement of trial, on the basis of an invalid sanction for prosecution, the Supreme Court has held.
• Constitutional provision:
o Article 20 (2) of the Constitution mandates that a person cannot be prosecuted or punished twice for the same offence.
• A Bench of Justices R. Banumathi and Indira Banerjee held in an October 30 judgment that if an “accused has not been tried at all and convicted or acquitted, the principles of double jeopardy cannot be invoked at all.”
• Double jeopardy:
o Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
o In some countries, including Canada, Mexico and the United States, the guarantee against being “twice put in jeopardy” is a constitutional right. 

 • Doctrine of double jeopardy in India:
o A partial protection against double jeopardy is a Fundamental Right guaranteed under Article 20 (2) of the Constitution of India, which states “No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.
o This provision enshrines the concept of autrefois convict, that no one convicted of an offence can be tried or punished a second time.


2) Consider the following statements regarding the Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report

I) The report was released recently by the World Health Organisation
II) According to it, India has the highest burden of pneumonia and diarrhoea child deaths in the world

Select the correct options from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: b
• India continues to have the highest burden of pneumonia and diarrhoea child deaths in the world.
• This was stated in the ‘Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report’ released on Friday by the International Vaccine Access Centre (IVAC).
• The report, which looked at progress in fighting pneumonia and diarrhoea in 15 countries with the greatest number of deaths from these illnesses, finds health systems are falling woefully short of ensuring that the most vulnerable children have access to prevention and treatment services.
• International scenario:
o The 15 countries that the report looked at account for 70% of global pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths in children under five.
o Globally, pneumonia and diarrhoea led to nearly one of every four deaths in children under five years of age in 2016.
o Authors at the IVAC have also called on the global community to collect better data and target communities of greatest need.
• The report analyses how effectively countries are delivering 10 key interventions :
o Breastfeeding, vaccination, access to care, use of antibiotics, oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc supplementation to help protect against, prevent, and treat, pneumonia and diarrhoea.
• The measures are proven to help prevent death due to these illnesses and could help achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal target of reducing under-five mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births by 2030.


3) Consider the following statements about Eco-Sensitive Zones

I) They are areas notified by the respective state governments around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
II) Physico-climatic features, biological features and social relevance of the area are considered in defining its ecological salience/significance/sensitivity

Choose the correct options from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: b
• ESZ around Benarghatta National Park to be cut down.
• Bannerghatta National Park, near Bangalore, Karnataka, was founded in 1970 and declared as a national park in 1974.
• In 2002 a portion of the park, became a biological reserve, the Bannerghatta Biological Park.
• There are ancient temples in the park for worship and it is a destination for trekking and hiking.
• An ecologically sensitive area is one that is protected by the government given the sheer number of species, plants and animals endemic to the region.
• They are areas notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
• According to the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the government can prohibit industrial operations such as mining, sand quarrying and building thermal power plants in sensitive areas.
• Purpose of asserting ESZ as a no-development zone:
o The prime objective of the ESZ is to set up a kind of shock absorber for the protected areas which will also act as a transition zone from areas of higher protection (parks, reserves, etc.) to areas involving lesser protection (urban settlements, industrial zones, etc.)


4) Consider the following statements regarding the National Tiger Conservation Authority

I) It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change constituted under the Forest Conservation Act, 1980
II) Project Tiger is a central sector scheme of the Ministry Environment, Forests and Climate Change launched in 1973

Identify the correct code from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: d
• NTA to form new team to probe recent tiger killings.
• The National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change constituted under enabling provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
• It was amended in 2006, for strengthening tiger conservation, as per powers and functions assigned to it under the said Act.
• The National Tiger Conservation Authority has been fulfilling its mandate within the ambit of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 for strengthening tiger conservation in the country by retaining an oversight through advisories/normative guidelines, based on appraisal of tiger status, ongoing conservation initiatives and recommendations of specially constituted Committees.
• Project Tiger is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Environment, Forests and Climate Change, providing funding support to tiger range States, for in-situ conservation of tigers in designated tiger reserves.
• It has put the endangered tiger on an assured path of recovery by saving it from extinction, as revealed by the recent findings of the All India tiger estimation using the refined methodology.
• Major objectives:
o Providing statutory authority to Project Tiger so that compliance of its directives become legal.
o Fostering accountability of Center-State in management of Tiger Reserves, by providing a basis for MoU with States within our federal structure.
o Providing for an oversight by Parliament.
o Addressing livelihood interests of local people in areas surrounding Tiger Reserves.


5) Which of the following became the first state in India to treat Hepatitis-C patients through oral medicine?

a) Kerala
b) Tamil Nadu
c) Odisha
d) Haryana


Answer: d
• Haryana has emerged as the first state in India to treat Hepatitis-C patients through oral medicine.
• Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. It spreads when blood of a healthy individual comes in contact with an infected person’s blood. This may happen through multiple means, with blades used by barbers being the primary one.
• The market cost of medicine and treatment for hepatitis C is about Rs 28,000 to Rs 30,000. However, Haryana State Government will provide it free of cost.
• Haryana will be the first state where 35 to 40 health tests would be conducted for everyone by visiting houses of all residents. The state health department will also maintain the record of these tests.


 

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