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Current Affairs Quiz , 08 Nov 2018

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1) Consider the following statements

I) VAPP occurs when the Polio virus turns virulent within the body of an unvaccinated child and causes polio.
II) The weakened virus in the vaccine can circulate in the environment, occasionally turn neurovirulent and cause vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in unprotected children.

Identify the correct options from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: b
• With wild polio virus strains reduced by 99.9% since 1988, the world is inching towards eradicating polio.
• But unfortunately, more children today are affected by the live, weakened virus contained in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) that is meant to protect them.
• The weakened virus in the vaccine can circulate in the environment, occasionally turn neurovirulent and cause vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in unprotected children.
• While the wild-type virus has caused 22 and 25 polio cases in 2017 and 2018 (as on October 30, 2018), respectively, in just two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan), VDPV was responsible for 96 and 75 polio cases in more countries during the same periods.
• The VAPP burden:
o While circulating VDPV strains are tracked, and outbreaks and cases are recorded and shared, little is known about vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, particularly in India.
o VAPP occurs when the virus turns virulent within the body of a recently vaccinated child and causes polio.
o With high-income countries switching to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that uses dead virus to immunise children, the VAPP burden is concentrated in low-income countries which continue to use the OPV.
• Indian scenario:
o In spite of the World Health Organisation asking all countries using the OPV to include a “continuous and effective system of surveillance” to monitor the frequency of VAPP in 1982, India did not comply.
o Data on VAPP became available only years after active polio surveillance was initiated in 1997.
o However, even after 1997, India did not count VAPP cases.


2) The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty is between which of the following countries?

a) U.S-North Korea
b) India-Pakistan
c) U.S-Russia
d) China-India


Answer: c
• Last month, U.S. President Donald Trump declared that the U.S. is quitting the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, a bilateral agreement with Russia signed in 1987.
• The 1987 Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty required the United States and the Soviet Union to eliminate and permanently forswear all of their nuclear and conventional ground launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 Kilometers.
• Treaty marked the first time the super powers had agreed to reduce their nuclear arsenals, eliminate an entire category of nuclear weapons and utilize extensive onsite- inspections for verification.
• As a result of the INF treaty, the United States and the Soviet Union destroyed a total 2,692 short medium, and intermediate range missiles by the treaty’s implementation deadline of June 1,1991.


3) Consider the following statements about Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme

I) It is an international platform under IEA for co-operation among countries to promote cleaner fuels & vehicle technologies
II) International Energy Agency is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the OECD in 1974

Identify the correct options from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: c
• The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister has been apprised of India joining as Member of Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme (AMF TCP)under International Energy Agency (IEA).
• The primary goal of joining AMF TCP by Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG) is to facilitate the market introduction of Advanced motor fuels/ Alternate fuels with an aim to bring down emissions and achieve higher fuel efficiency in transport sector.
• AMF TCP also provides an opportunity for fuel analysis, identifying new/ alternate fuels for deployment in transport sector and allied R&D activities for reduction in emissions in fuel intensive sectors..
Alternative Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme:
• AMF TCP is an international platform for co-operation among countries to promote cleaner and more energy efficient fuels & vehicle technologies.
• The and looks upon the transport fuel issues in a systemic way taking into account activities of AMF TCP relate to R&D, deployment and dissemination of Advanced Motor Fuels the production, distribution and end use related aspects.
IEA:
• Founded in 1974, the IEA was initially designed to help countries co-ordinate a collective response to major disruptions in the supply of oil, such as the crisis of 1973/4.
• The IEA examines the full spectrum of energy issues including oil, gas and coal supply and demand, renewable energy technologies, electricity markets, energy efficiency, access to energy, demand side management and much more.
• Through its work, the IEA advocates policies that will enhance the reliability, affordability and sustainability of energy in its 30 member countries and beyond.


4) Consider the following statements about the newly discovered dust moons

I) They are collections of extremely tiny particles stretched over an enormous area that dwarfs even Earth itself
II) These large puffs of space dust have been named “Kordylewski clouds,” after Kazimierz Kordylewski, the first person to have spotted them

Select the correct options from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: c
• After more than half a century of speculation, it has now been confirmed that Earth has two dust ‘moons’ orbiting it which are nine times wider than our planet.
• The new moons exist at a distance of approximately 250,000 miles — more or less the same distance as our moon.
• The presence of the dust ‘moons’ or Kordylewski clouds had been inferred by researchers since long before. But the first glimpse of the clouds was seen only in 1961 by Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski, after whom the dust clouds were named.
• The new findings note that each Kordylewsky cloud is about 15 by 10 degrees wide, or equal to 30 by 20 lunar disks in the night sky.
• They are spread over a space area that is almost nine times the width of Earth — about 65,000 by 45,000 miles in actual size.
• The dust ‘moons’ are huge but they are made of tiny dust particles that barely measure one micrometre across.
• When sunlight hits the dust particles, they glow very faintly, much like the zodiacal light we receive from the dust scattered in between planetary orbits.
• Since these satellite dust clouds emit an extremely faint light, they are very difficult to find amidst the star light, sky glow, galactic light and zodiacal light in the sky though they are as close to us as the moon.


5) Consider the following statements regarding the World Hunger Map

I) It is an initiative of Alibaba Cloud, the cloud computing arm of Alibaba and World Food Programme
II) It will help to monitor global hunger and operations to end scourge by 2030 and also aims to boost efficiency of interventions and shorten emergency response times.

Select the correct codes from below

a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Both I & II
d) Neither I nor II


Answer: c
• Alibaba Cloud, the cloud computing arm of Alibaba will work with WFP to develop digital “World Hunger Map”. The map will help to monitor global hunger and operations to end scourge by 2030 which is one of UN’s key Sustainable Development goals. It also aims to boost efficiency of interventions and shorten emergency response times.
• The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food assistance branch of the United Nations and the world’s largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
• The WFP strives to eradicate hunger and malnutrition, with the ultimate goal in mind of eliminating the need for food aid itself. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee.
• The WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from world governments, corporations and private donors. WFP food aid is also directed to fight micronutrient deficiencies, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, and combat disease, including HIV and AIDS.


 

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